Imbwa shanduko

Iko kushanduka kwembwa kwakatanga zviuru zvemakore apfuura

Kubva pane ino chinyorwa isu tinokuudza iwe kuti iyo imbwa shanduko. Zvipfuwo zvinotonga zvinokambaira kwemakore makumi manomwe emamiriyoni. Mimwe yemhando dzakararama panguva iyoyo yaitaridzika semapere, mamwe mafisi, mamwe mafuru, mhando dzakashanduka kana kutsakatika.

Nezve imbwa zvinozivikanwa kuti chembere chakawanikwa chiri cynodictis, akararama makore makumi manomwe nemakumi mana emakore apfuura muAsia neEuropean continent. Imwe yaingoonekwa kuAmerican kondinendi makore makumi maviri nemashanu apfuura, asi yatove nenzira yakashanduka. Iyi nguva inonzi Pseudocynodictis uye aiva neukama hwepedyo naye cynodictis European.

Madzitateguru embwa

El cynodictis ndaive ne yakanyanya kusarudzika maitiro, ine muviri wakareba, unoshanduka-shanduka, mitezo yayo yaive mipfupi, iine minwe mishanu nezvipikiri zvinodzoserwa. Iwo maficha aive echinyakare.

Mamiriyoni gumi emakore akazotevera kuNorth America kwaigara imwe imbwa, inonzi Daphoenus, Hunhu hwavo hwakaita sedzemusanganiswa pakati pembwa nekatsi. Mafupa ayo akange akafanana neaya emhara, nedehenya rembwa kana mhumhi.

Ipapo iyo mesocyon. Vazhinji masayendisiti vanofunga izvi seakazvarwa tateguru wemamwe maviri canids, iyo Cynodesmus (mumhanyi) uye iyo Takectus (ine dehenya rakafanana neyazvino canines).

Nhoroondo uye Kwakatangira imbwa

Imbwa dzinobva mumhumhi

Dzimwe nguva isu takatoshamisika kuti imbwa dzinobva kupi, kwaive kutanga kwadzo, nei dziripo uye nei kune akawanda marudzi. Nhasi tichaziva mavambo acho akange akaita sei zvichiteerana kusvika nhasi uno, kana imbwa inochengetwa ichibva kumadzitateguru kana boka remadzitateguru iro rakadzoka makore angangoita makumi matatu emakore apfuura, uye kubva ipapo rapararira pasi rese.

Munyika yeIsrael Zvisaririra zvembwa zvakavigwa padhuze nevanhu zvakawanikwaTinogona kuona kuti kubvira mazana emakore apfuura iyo imbwa yaive nechinangwa chakakura kuvanhu, tinogona kuchiona muEjipitori nemaharahara mumifananidzo, uye zvishoma nezvishoma ivo vakashanduka mutsika nemagariro.

Imbwa kugoverana nharaunda, tsika uye mararamiro evanhuKune vamwe vanhu vazhinji vanovatora sevana vavo vachivadaidza kuti vadyari, zvinonakidza ndezvekuti hosha zhinji dzinowanikwa nevanhu, dzakadai sechirwere cheAlzheimer uye kumwe kushushikana kwepfungwa.

Kwakatangira iyo imbwa yanga isiri yakapusa uye yakatanga makore makumi mashanu emakore. Canine yekutanga ine zvisaririra ndiyo Prohesperocyon yakaonekwa makore makumi mana emamiriyoni apfuura, asi makore emamirioni makumi matatu apfuura maini ekutanga akaonekwa aive akafanana nemhumhi uye jackal, aya aibva kuNorth America.

Munguva yekushanduka kwayo, aya canines akarongwa mumapakejiIvo vaivhima mumapoka uye vaizivikanwa nehukuru hwavo hukuru uye yavo tsika yekuvhima husiku. Parizvino, zviongororwa zveDNA zvakaitwa, zvichiona kuti imbwa, mhumhi uye coyote zvinogovera zvakawandisa kuteedzana kwemajini.

Zvisinei, kufanana kwehumhi uye imbwa kunotungamira zvakanyanya, asi hazvireve kuti imbwa iko kushanduka kwemhumhi, asi kuti ivo vanogovana tateguru mumwe chete kubva kune subspecies yakatanga. Kuonekwa kwembwa dzekutanga kwaive makore gumi nemana kana gumi nemashanu apfuura munzvimbo imwechete yeEurasia.

Chii chinonzi shanduko yembwa?

  • Makore mazana mashanu 500,000 Kristu asati azvarwa murume uye zviuru mazana maviri ezviuru pamberi paKristu. Chekutanga Canis Lupus (Mhumhi) yeCanis sinensis inowanikwa kuGerman neAmerica, coyote muNorth America uye Fox neJackal kuEurope.
  • Makore zviuru makumi matatu kusvika gumi nemashanu Kristu asati azvarwa: Yakanga iri nguva yeGreat Hunt, asi pakanga pasina imbwa zvakadaro. Makumi gumi nemashanu kusvika zviuru gumi Kristu asati azvarwa imbwa yekumba nemapfupa embwa nevarume zvakawanikwa muRussia. Paivewo nembwa dzisina nzeve nemiswe mirefu.
  • Makore zviuru gumi kusvika zviuru zvitanhatu Kristu asati auya. Iyo Canis Farcolaris Palustris kana imbwa imbwa, tateguru wemarudzi e-spitz-mhando, akaonekwa: Samoyed, Chow chow, hombe poodle. Imbwa yekutanga yakaonekwa kuEast uye ndipo panotangira mhando zhinji dzembwa.
  • Makore 4000 Kristu asati azvarwa- Imbwa dzinoshandiswa pakuvhima dzakaonekwa muEjipitori. Makore zviuru zvitatu kusvika zviuru zviviri Kristu asati agadzira kunyora muEjipitori, nguva yeVarume, Dzinza rekutanga, mumiriri wegreyhound, ine muswe mupfupi kana yakamonerwa kumusana kwayo.
  • Makore zviuru makumi matatu kusvika gumi nemashanu Kristu asati azvarwaImbwa dzinovhima dzakatumirwa kubva kuEthiopiya kuenda kuEgypt munguva yehumambo Hutsva. Makore 1000 Kristu asati azvarwa, kuGirisi Aristotle akaronga mhando nomwe dzembwa pakati padzo, dzinonzi Molossians, imbwa dzeLaconia, Melithean, tateguru weMaldese lapdog uye Epirote, imbwa hombe uye yakasimba.

Imbwa dzemhumhi dzakashanduka sei?

Izvo zvinotaurwa kuti imbwa ndiko kushanduka kwemhumhi uye kuti izvi zvakaitika makore zviuru makumi matatu nematatu apfuura. Zvinoenderana nekufungidzirwa kwevanyanzvi, vanosimbisa kuti kwaigona kunge kuri kupesana pakati pevaviri vemhumhi uye mumwe wavo aigona kuzove imbwa dzinoitwa mudzimba.

Zvinoenderana nedzidziso iyi, inoratidza kuti imbwa dzenguva iyoyo dzaigona kuve dzakapfuyiwa nevanhu kana vachitsvaga chikafu. Kuchengetwa kwembwa kwakapararira pasirese, kusanganisira mhando dzadzo. Naizvozvo, nyanzvi dzakatanga kushandisa genetics yeimbwa, nokudaro vachiwana chimiro chinowedzera chakasiyana chehunhu.

Kuchengetwa kwembwa

Imbwa dzaichengetwa muEurope

Imbwa dzaisave nguva dzose shamwari yepamwoyo yemunhu. Kwete chete nekuda kwekushanduka kwavo, asi nekuti ivo zvakare vaifanira kupfuura panguva yekudzidziswa. Uye isu tiri kutaura pamusoro penguva yakati rebei, sezvo, maererano nenyanzvi pachavo, zvinozivikanwa kuti izvi Yakatanga makore angangoita 19.000 apfuura, muEurope.

Kunyanya, uye maererano neongororo yakaitwa nemamwe masayendisiti eEuropean, zvinofungidzirwa kuti kudzidziswa kwembwa kwakatanga pakati pemakore 19.000 ne32.000 apfuura, uko kwavakawanawo zvakateedzana zvemashoko zvinokwezva kutarisisa kwakawanda uye tizviitire maungira.

Zvinoenderana nekutsvaga kwakaburitswa mumagazini Sayenzi, iyo imbwa yaisave iri nguva dzose "shamwari" kuvanhu. Sezvaunenge uchitoziva, uyu aive nekushanduka kwakamuita kuti aende kubva pamhumhi kuenda imbwa, uye kubva pahasha kusvika pakuve nerudo kune avo vanomuda. Asi kwaivewo nehurongwa hwekudzidziswa mudzimba.

Mukuwedzera, zvakawanikwa kuti vanhu avo zvirokwazvo vakakwanisa kudzidzisa imbwa dzaive ivo vavhimi vanounganidza ivo pachavo, nekuda kwekugona kwake kudzidzisa nekudzora mapere emusango ayo, nekufamba kwenguva, akazova imbwa dzanhasi.

Chidzidzo chinopesana nezvimwe zvirevo

Uye ndezvekuti chirevo ichi chekudzidza chinobonderana nevamwe chakamisikidzwa seEurasia (Middle East) kana East Asia kudzidziswa kwemhuka idzi. Mune ino kesi, humbowo hwesainzi hwakapihwa ndiwo maratidziro emajini emhando dzembwa dzemazuva ano, dzaifananidzwa neidzo dzezvisaririra kubva kuAsia, Europe nedzimwe nzvimbo dzepasi.. Izvi zvakakonzera kuti mapere ekare eEurope ave akanyanya kufanana necheni yezvibereko, izvo zvinotibvumidza kuti titi imbwa dzekare dzaichengetwa dzaibva kuEurope.

Mhumhi yakagadziriswa sei kuti ive imbwa?

Chokwadi hatigone kuziva kuti imbwa dzaichengetwa sei, nekuti hapana chinyorwa chakanyorwa, asi icho chakaburitswa icho maitiro acho aive akareba uye zvishoma nezvishoma, sezvo zvakatora makore mazhinji kuti vasandukire kune kwavanozivikanwa izvozvi.

Zvamunoziva iwe kubva kuzvidzidzo zvakaitwa ndezvechokwadi chiitiko ichi chakaitika nekuti zvese zvipenyu zvakabatsirwa. Hongu, vese murume nemhumhi vakabatsirwa nehukama uhwu, nekudaro zvishoma nezvishoma zvakatanga kugara pasi zvichikonzera shanduko, kunyanya mumhuka (senge ganda reganda, morphology, saizi yavakawana ...).

Kubatsirwa kwakaitwa munhu nemhumhi

Panyaya iyi, munhu uye mhumhi zvaizoita kunge vaive vavengi vakasimba. Uye ivo vaive chaizvo; Mhumhi dzaigona kurwisa vanhu uyezve mhuka kana kunyangwe zvirimwa zvavaive nazvo, saka vaisakwanisa kuvimbwa.

Nekudaro, paive nerubatsiro rwemhumhi: vaidzivirira kubva kune dzimwe mhuka. Kuve padyo nemisha, dzimwe mhuka dzakawanda hadzina kusvika nekuti vakanzwisisa kuti iyi yaive "ndima" yemhumhi, uye kashoma kuti imwe mhuka itye kusangana nayo. Izvi zvinokonzeresa kuti vanhu vangotarisa kumapere kuti vazvidzivirire asi zvisina kunangana, ivo (mapere) ndivo vaive vakatochengetedza vanhu nekuva "takomberedza" sechinangwa chavo.

Mapere akabatsirwa sei nevanhu

Zvino, mapere akawana mugove wawo weizvi zvakare. Hatichapinda mukurwisa kunogona kuitika kuvanhu, mhuka kana zvirimwa, asi panzvimbo pezvo vaigona kuwana chikafu, chero zvasara zvezvakasiiwa nemurume, kana izvo zvavakapa kuvadzikamisa uye kusiya kwavo vega.

Pamusoro pezvo, vazhinji vakatanga kushandisa pekugara kwevanhu senzvimbo yekuvanda, kungave kumatunhu akadzikira, kwakashata mamiriro ekunze, kupisa ... Navaive vachiziva kuti vanhu havasi "vakaipa" uye hukama hwacho hwaigadzirwa.

Muchokwadi, zvinonzi inogona kuve nzira iyoyo nevanhu pavanenge vachipa chikafu (hazvizivikanwe kana kuponesa dzimwe mhuka, zvirimwa, nezvimwe mukuyedza kuzvisiya zviri zvoga zvodyiwa kuitira kuti vasazorwisa izvo zvavaida) chero chii chingakonzera canine kudzidziswa kutanga.

Dzimba zvakare kuburikidza nekuedza

Pamusoro pekudzidziswa kwembwa maererano neshanduko yavo, isu tinofanirwa zvakare kutaura nezvekuyedza kwakawanda kunoitwa nemasayendisiti kugadzira mhando dzakasiyana dzembwa. Uye ndeyekuti mazhinji emadzinza atinoziva nhasi haana kuzvarwa zvakasikwa asi akafuridzirwa neruoko rwemunhu.

Mune mamwe mazwi, mhumhi, imbwa kana chero chaunoda kuvadaidza, chakashanda se "Guinea yenguruve" kuyedza uye kugadzira akasiyana marudzi kuyedza kuwana zvakanakisa (kana zvakaipisisa) mune yega yega kuti uwane mujaho wakasiyana mukudzoka.

Izvo zvakakonzera kudzidziswa? Neimwe nzira hongu, sezvo mazhinji emarudzi acho achizviisa pasi kupfuura mamwe nekuti akaedza kugadzira imbwa dzaive nerunyararo uye dzisina majini ane hukasha anoita mamwe marudzi.

Evhangeri imbwa kwemakore zana

Mhando zhinji dzembwa zvigadzirwa zvakaitwa nevanhu kuedza uye kuyedza, nekuti ivo vakabatanidza imbwa dzakasiyana saka kune akasiyana marudzi.

Munguva yemakore zana apfuura hunhu hwave kuchinja zvishoma nezvishoma, saka dzimwe mhando dzembwa dzakatosiyana uye nekushamisa kune zvazvaive makore zana apfuura, izvi ndezvimwe shanduko zvinoonekwa zvakanyanya. Inodaidzwa kusarudzika kwekusarudzika pakuchinja kwemagene kwakaitwa nevanhu kune imbwa.

Chii chinonzi taxonomy yeimbwa?

Kutanga isu tinofanirwa kuziva kuti chii chinonzi taxonomy, ichi chiri icho bazi rebiology rinotarisira kurongedza uye kutumidza chimwe nechimwe chezvinhu zvipenyu. Iyo imbwa ndeya Phylum chordata, ndiko kuti, yezvakaitika. Ava ndivo vanhu vane tambo yakasara. Iyi tambo inopa kuomarara uye mune dzimwe nguva inotsiviwa nemuzongoza sembwa.

Ndeupi hunhu hwembwa?

Imbwa dzakazoitwa dzimba zvishoma nezvishoma

Imbwa pachezvadzo dzine hunhu hwakawanda uye hunhu hwakafanana nehwo hunodiwa nemunhu kuti ararame, saka tinosiya runyorwa rwehunhu hwavo:

Kufambidzana

Ndihwo hunyanzvi hwavakazvarwa nahwo kana zvasvika pakudzidza zvese zvavanodzidziswaNdosaka zvichinzi imhuka dzakangwara zvikuru. Isu tinofanirwa zvakare kujekesa mwero wekushamwaridzana kwavanochengetedza nevanhu, kana vachigara mumapoka zvinomira zvakanyanya.

Kukurukurirana

Imbwa kutaurirana nenzira dzakasiyana seweti yekumaka, vanosveta munhu kuti vade kumuudza chimwe chinhu, vanogona zvakare kuhukura, kugunun'una uye kunyangwe kuhukura, mukutaurirana kwavo kwemuviri kwakakoshawo pakutaurirana kwavo uye vanozviita vachidzungudza muswe, paw inoratidza mamiriro ekutya kana kutya.

Kuberekerwa

Vakadzi vanosvika pakukura pabonde mushure memwedzi mipfumbamwe uye varume vanenge gumi nemashanu, asi izvi hazvinyatso kuve nechokwadi, nekuti zvinoenderana zvakanyanya nerudzi rwembwa, zvinogona kuve pamberi kana mushure meiyi parameter, chakanakira nemwero ndechekusangana navo pagore nehafu.

Humwe hunhu hune imbwa ndehwu:

  • Avhareji yehupenyu: pakati pemakore gumi nerimwe kana gumi nemashanu.
  • Kudya chikafu: isiri-yakaoma carnivore.
  • Simba rinoda: pakati pe130 ne3,500 macalorie pazuva
  • Dzidziso: vane mazino makumi mana nemaviri.
  • Tembiricha yemuviri: pakati pe 38 kusvika 39 degrees.
  • Pulso: pakati pe60 ne120 kurova paminiti mumbwanana uye vakuru.

Isu tinoshuvira kuti ruzivo urwu rwakave rwekufarira iwe kuti uzive yako furry shamwari zvirinani.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Mhinduro, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Fredy alexsander cabrera castellanos akadaro

    Zvakanaka, zvinogoneka sei kuti ini ndaona kumwe kushanduka kwema buts aine hunyanzvi kupfuura zvakajairwa uye ini ndakavaona asi gare gare anovatora kuti avatengese kune dzimwe nyika chimwe chinhu chakafanana