Inja yokuziphendukela kwemvelo

Ukuvela kwezinja kwaqala eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane edlule

Kule ndatshana sizokutshela ukuthi inja kwemvelo. Izilwane ezincelisayo ziye zabusa izilwane ezihuquzelayo iminyaka eyizigidi ezingama-70. Ezinye zezinhlobo ezaziphila ngaleso sikhathi zazibukeka njengamabhere, amanye ama-hyenas, amanye ama-feline, izinhlobo zavela noma zanyamalala.

Mayelana nezinja kuyaziwa ukuthi endala kunazo zonke ezitholakele I-Cynodictis, owayephila eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-70 nengama-40 edlule ezwenikazi lase-Asia nelaseYurophu. Eyodwa yabonakala ezwenikazi laseMelika eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-25 edlule, kepha isivele ngendlela eguquke kahle. Le nkathi ibizwa I-Pseudocynodictis futhi wayehlobene kakhulu naye I-Cynodictis I-European.

Okhokho bezinja

El I-Cynodictis ngine- ukubukeka okukhethekile kakhulu kwe-anatomical, enomzimba ovulekile, oguquguqukayo, izitho zawo zazifushane impela, zineminwe emihlanu nezinzipho ezihlehliswayo. Izici bezingezakudala impela.

Eminyakeni eyizigidi eziyi-10 kamuva kwahlala enye inja eNyakatho Melika, okuthiwa UDaphoenus, Izici zazo ezibonakala zingumphumela wenhlanganisela phakathi kwezinja namakati. Amathambo ayo ayefana ncamashi nofele, nogebhezi lwenja noma impisi.

Ngemuva kwalokho i- I-Mesocyon. Ososayensi abaningi bakuthatha lokhu njengokhokho oqondile wamanye ama-canids amabili, i I-Cynodesmus (umgijimi kakhulu) kanye ne I-Tomarctus (ngogebhezi olufana nama-canine amanje).

Umlando kanye Nomsuka wenja

Izinja zizalwa yizimpisi

Kwesinye isikhathi siye sizibuze ukuthi izinja zivelaphi, zaqala kanjani, kungani zikhona nokuthi kungani kunezinhlobo eziningi kangaka. Namuhla sizokwazi beziqala kanjani ngokulandelana kwazo kuze kube namuhla, uqobo lwayo inja efuywayo ivela kokhokho noma eqenjini lokhokho elabuyela emuva eminyakeni engaba ngu-30,000 edlule, futhi lisuka lapho lasakazekela emhlabeni wonke.

Ezweni lakwa-Israyeli Kwatholakala izinsalela zezinsalela zezinja ezazigqitshwe eduze kwabantu, singabona ukuthi sekungamakhulu eminyaka inja inencazelo enhle kubantu, singayibona eGibhithe kanye nofaro emidwebo, futhi kancane kancane baye bavela emasikweni nakubantu.

Izinja yabelana ngemvelo, umkhuba nendlela yokuphila yabantuKukhona ngisho nabantu abaningi ababamukela njengezingane zabo abababiza ngabantwana abangondli, iqiniso elithandekayo ukuthi izifo eziningi abantu abanazo, njengesifo i-Alzheimer's nezinye izifo zemizwa.

Imvelaphi yenja ibingelula neze futhi ihlehlela emuva eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-50. I-canine yokuqala enezinsalela yiProhesperocyon eyavela eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-40 eyedlule, kepha eminyakeni eyizigidi ezingama-30 edlule kwavela ama-canine okuqala ayefana nempisi nempungushe, lawa ayevela eNyakatho Melika.

Ngesikhathi sokuvela kwayo, lawa ma-canine ahlelwa ngamaphaketheBabezingela ngamaqembu futhi babaziwa ngosayizi wabo omkhulu nokuthambekela kwabo ekuzingeleni ebusuku. Njengamanje, kwenziwa izifundo ze-DNA, ukuthola ukuthi inja, impisi kanye necoyote kwabelana ngokulandelana okuningi kwemithwalo yezakhi zofuzo.

Nokho, ukufana kwempisi nenja kulawula kakhulu, kepha akusho ukuthi inja ingukuziphendukela kwempisi, kepha kunalokho ukuthi bahlanganyela ukhokho ofanayo lapho kuvela khona izinhlamvana. Ukuvela kwezinja zokuqala bekuyiminyaka eyi-14 noma eyi-15 yezigidi edlule endaweni efanayo yase-Eurasia.

Kuyini ukuvela kwenja?

  • Iminyaka engama-500,000 ngaphambi kukaKristu indoda eyandulela umlando kanye neminyaka eyizinkulungwane ezingama-200,000 ngaphambi kukaKristu: I-Canis Lupus (Izimpisi) zokuqala ze-Canis sinensis zivela eJalimane naseMelika e-China, i-coyote eNyakatho Melika kanye ne-Fox ne-Jackal eYurophu.
  • Eminyakeni engama-30,000 kuya kwayi-15000 ngaphambi kukaKristu: Kwakuyisikhathi se-Great Hunt, kodwa zazingakabikho izinja okwamanje. Eminyakeni eyi-15,000 kuya kwengu-10,000 XNUMX ngaphambi kukaKristu kwavela inja yasekhaya namathambo ezinja namadoda atholakala eRussia. Kwakukhona nezinja ezingenazindlebe nemisila emide.
  • Iminyaka eyi-10,000 6,000 ukuya kwezi-XNUMX XNUMX ngaphambi kwakaKrestu: I-Canis Farcolaris Palustris noma inja ye-bog, ukhokho wezinhlobo zohlobo lwe-spitz, yavela: USamoyed, Chow chow, poodle enkulu. Inja yokuqala yavela eMpumalanga futhi kulapho izinhlobo eziningi zezinja zivela khona.
  • Eminyakeni engama-4000 ngaphambi kukaKristu- Izinja ezisetshenziselwa ukuzingela zivele eGibhithe. Eminyakeni engama-3,000 2,000 kuya kwengu-XNUMX XNUMX ngaphambi kokuba uKristu asungule ukubhala eGibhithe, isikhathi samadoda, ubukhosi bokuqala, ukumelwa kwegreyhound, enomsila omfushane noma ohlanganiswe ngemuva.
  • Eminyakeni engama-2000 kuya kwayi-1000 ngaphambi kukaKristuIzinja zokuzingela zingeniswe zisuka e-Ethiopia zaya eGibhithe ngesikhathi soMbuso Omusha. Eminyakeni eyi-1000 ngaphambi kukaKristu, eGrisi u-Aristotle ubala izinhlobo eziyisikhombisa zezinja phakathi kwazo, amaMolossians, izinja zaseLaconia, iMelithean, ukhokho we-lapdog yaseMalta kanye ne-Epirote, inja yezimvu enkulu neqinile.

Izinja zempisi ziguquke kanjani?

Kushiwo ukuthi izinja kungukuvela kwezimpisi nokuthi lokhu kwenzeka eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane ezingama-33 edlule. Ngokuya ngemibono yochwepheshe, baveza ukuthi bekungaba ukwahlukana phakathi kwabantu ababili bezimpisi kanti omunye wabo kungenzeka kamuva abe yizinja ezifuywayo.

Ngokomqondo, kukhombisa ukuthi izinja zangaleso sikhathi zazingafuywa ngabantu lapho befuna ukudla. Ukufuywa kwezinja kwasabalala emhlabeni wonke, kufaka phakathi izinhlobo zazo. Ngakho-ke, ochwepheshe baqala ukuxhaphaza izakhi zofuzo zezinja, ngaleyo ndlela bafeza ukubonakala kokuziphatha okwehluka kakhulu.

Ukufuywa kwenja

Izinja zafuywa eYurophu

Izinja bezingahlali zingabangane abakhulu babantu. Hhayi kuphela ngenxa yokuziphendukela kwemvelo kwabo, kepha ngoba futhi bekufanele badlule esikhathini sokufundwa. Futhi sikhuluma ngenkathi ende impela, ngoba, ngokusho kochwepheshe uqobo, kuyaziwa ukuthi lokhu Kwaqala okungenani eminyakeni eyi-19.000 eyedlule, eYurophu.

Ngokuqondile, nangokuya ngokuhlaziywa okwenziwe ososayensi abathile baseYurophu, kulinganiselwa ukuthi ukufuywa kwenja kwaqala phakathi kweminyaka eyi-19.000 nengama-32.000 edlule, lapho bathola nochungechunge lwezitatimende eziheha ukunakwa okuningi futhi sizenze sinanela.

Ngokuya ngocwaningo olushicilelwe ephephabhukwini i-Science, inja bekungeyona "umngane" wabantu njalo. Njengoba usuvele uyazi, lona wayenokuziphendukela kwemvelo okwamenza wasuka empisi eya enjeni, futhi esuka ekubeni nolaka waya ekuthandeni kakhulu labo abamthandayo. Kepha kwakukhona nenqubo yokufuya.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kutholakele ukuthi abantu impela bakwazile ukufuya izinja bekungabaqoqi abazingeli uqobo, ngenxa yekhono lakhe lokuqeqesha nokuthambisa izimpisi zasendle ezathi, ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, zaba yizinja zanamuhla.

Ucwaningo olushayisana nezinye izimangalo

Futhi ukuthi lesi sitatimende socwaningo sishayisana nezinye ezasungulwa njenge-Eurasia (Middle East) noma i-East Asia ukufuywa kwalezi zilwane. Kulokhu, ubufakazi besayensi buhlinzekiwe ukulandelana kofuzo kwezinhlobo zezinja zanamuhla, ezaqhathaniswa nalezo zezinsalela ezivela e-Asia, eYurophu nakwezinye izingxenye zomhlaba. Lokhu kuholele ekutheni izimpisi zasendulo zaseYurophu zihlobene kakhulu nochungechunge lofuzo, okwenza sikwazi ukusho ukuthi izinja zasendulo ezifuywayo zazivela eYurophu.

Impisi yafuywa kanjani ukuze ibe inja?

Ngokuqinisekile ngeke sazi ukuthi ukufuywa kwezinja kwakunjani, ngoba akukho okubhaliwe okubhaliwe, kepha kuyinkohliso lokho inqubo yayinde futhi kancane kancane, ngoba kwathatha iminyaka eminingi ukuba ziguquke zibe indlela ezaziwa ngayo manje.

Lokho okwaziyo ezifundweni eziye zenziwa yilokho impela inqubo yenzeka ngoba zombili izinhlobo zazuza. Yebo, bobabili indoda nempisi bahlomula ngalobu budlelwano, yingakho, kancane kancane baqala ukuhlala phansi babanga izinguquko, ikakhulukazi ezilwaneni (njengebala lesikhumba, i-morphology, usayizi abakutholile ...).

Uzuze kanjani umuntu ngempisi

Kulokhu, umuntu nempisi kubukeka kuyizitha eziqinile. Futhi babenjalo ngempela; izimpisi zazihlasela abantu kanye nezilwane noma izitshalo ababenazo, ngakho-ke zazingathenjwa.

Kodwa-ke, kwakukhona inzuzo yezimpisi: babebavikela kwezinye izidalwa. Ukuba seduze kwamadolobhana, ezinye izilwane eziningi azisondelanga ngoba ziqonda ukuthi le "yinsimu" yezimpisi, futhi akuvamile ukuthi esinye isilwane silinge ukubhekana nazo. Lokhu kudala ukuthi abantu kumele bagxile kuphela ezimpisini ukuze bazivikele kepha ngokungaqondile, bona (izimpisi) yibo ababevele bevikela abantu ngokuthi "babazungeze" njengezinjongo zabo.

Izimpisi zazuza kanjani kubantu

Manje, izimpisi zithole isabelo sazo nalokhu. Asisakwazi ukuhlasela abantu, izilwane noma izitshalo, kepha esikhundleni salokho bengakuthola ukudla, noma izinsalela zalokho okushiywe yindoda, noma abakunike bona ukubenza bathule futhi bashiye okwabo bodwa.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, abaningi baqala ukusebenzisa izindawo zokuhlala zabantu njengendawo yokukhosela, kungaba ngamazinga okushisa aphansi, isimo sezulu esingesihle, ukushisa ... Ngalokho babebona ukuthi abantu babengekho "babi" kangako kanti nobudlelwano babudalwa.

Eqinisweni, kuthiwa kungaba yileso esenziwa ngabantu lapho bebanikeza ukudla (akwaziwa ukuthi kungasindiswa yini ezinye izilwane, izilimo, njll. Ngemizamo yokubashiya bodwa bese bedliwa ukuze bangahlaseli lokho ababekufuna) noma yini engadala ukuqala kwasekhaya kwe-canine.

Ezasekhaya nangokuzama

Ngokungeziwe ekufuyweni kwezinja maqondana nokuziphendukela kwazo, kufanele futhi sibheke nemizamo eminingi yososayensi yokwenza izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezinja. Futhi ukuthi izinhlanga eziningi esizaziyo namuhla azizalwanga ngokwemvelo kepha zithonywe isandla somuntu.

Ngamanye amagama, izimpisi, izinja noma yini ofuna ukuyibiza ngayo, yakhonza njenge "Guinea Guinea" yokuhlola nokwakha izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ukuzama ukuthola okuhle kakhulu (noma okubi kakhulu) komunye nomunye ukuthola umjaho ohlukile ngokubuyekeza.

Ingabe lokho kwaba nomthelela ekufuyweni? Ngandlela-thile, yebo, ngoba izinhlobo eziningi zizithoba kakhulu kunezinye ngoba zizame ukudala izinja ezazinokuthula futhi zazingenazo lezo zofuzo ezinolaka ezinye izinhlobo ezizenzayo.

Ukuguquka kwenja iminyaka eyikhulu

Izinhlobo eziningi zezinja ziyimikhiqizo eyenziwe ngabantu izivivinyo nokuhlola, ngoba babhangqe izinja ezehlukene ngakho-ke kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene.

Eminyakeni eyikhulu edlule izici bezilokhu ziguquka kancane kancane, ngakho-ke ezinye izinhlobo zezinja zihluke kancane futhi ziyamangaza kulokho ezaziyikho eminyakeni eyi-100 eyedlule, lezi ezinye izinguquko ziyabonakala kakhulu. Ibizwa Ukukhethwa kokufakelwa ekuphathweni kofuzo okwenziwe ngabantu ezinjeni.

Iyini intela yenja?

Okokuqala kufanele sazi ukuthi yini i-taxonomy, lokhu kuyi- igatsha lebhayoloji eliphethe ukuhlukanisa nokuqamba isidalwa ngasinye. Inja ingekaPhylum chordata, okusho ukuthi, yezingxabano. Laba ngabantu abanentambo yomgogodla. Le ntambo inikeza ukuqina okuthile futhi kwezinye izimo ithathelwa indawo umgogodla njengenja.

Yiziphi izici zezinja?

Izinja zafuywa kancane kancane

Izinja ngokwazo zinezimfanelo nezici eziningi ezifana nalezo umuntu azidingayo ukuze aphile, ngakho-ke sishiya uhlu lwezici zazo:

Ukuzijabulisa

Kuyikhono abanalo ngokwemvelo uma kukhulunywa ngokufunda konke abakufundiswayoYingakho kuthiwa bayizilwane ezihlakaniphe kakhulu. Kumele futhi sigqamise izinga lezenhlalo abaligcinayo nabantu, uma behlala emihlambini kuzobonakala kakhulu.

Ukuxhumana

Izinja ukuxhumana ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene njengemikhondo yomchamo wokumaka, bahogela umuntu ukuthi bafuna ukumtshela okuthile, bangasebenzisa nokukhonkotha, ukububula nokuhhewula, ekukhulumisaneni komzimba kubalulekile futhi ekukhulumisaneni kwabo futhi bakwenza ngokushaya umsila, isidladla sikhombisa isimo sokwesaba noma ukwesaba.

Ukuzala

Abesifazane afinyelela ekuvuthweni ngokocansi ngemuva kwezinyanga eziyisishiyagalolunye nabesilisa ababa neminyaka eyi-15, kepha lokhu akuqiniseki ngokuphelele, ngoba kuzoncika kakhulu kohlobo lwenja, kungaba ngaphambi noma ngemuva kwalezi zimingcele, okuhle ngokujwayelekile ukuwashada ngonyaka nohhafu.

Ezinye izici izinja ezinazo yilezi:

  • Impilo emaphakathi: phakathi kweminyaka eyi-11 noma eyi-15.
  • Ukudla kokudla: i-carnivore engaqinile.
  • Izidingo zamandla: phakathi kwama-calories angu-130 no-3,500 XNUMX ngosuku
  • Ukufakelwa kwamazinyo: banamazinyo angama-42.
  • Ukushisa komzimba: phakathi kwama-38 kuya kuma-39 degrees.
  • Pulse: phakathi kwama-60 no-120 amabhithi ngomzuzu ngemidlwane nangaphezulu.

Siyethemba lolu lwazi lube nentshisekelo kuwe ukuze wazi kangcono umngani wakho onoboya.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kunamathela ezimisweni zethu ze izimiso zokuhlelela. Ukubika iphutha chofoza lapha.

Amazwana, shiya okwakho

Shiya umbono wakho

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.

  1.   uFredy alexsander cabrera castellanos kusho

    Hhayi-ke, kungenzeka kanjani ukuthi ngibone okunye ukuvela kwama-buts ngamakhono amaningi kunokujwayelekile futhi ngiwabonile kodwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ubathatha ukuwathengisela kwamanye amazwe, into efanayo

i-bool(iqiniso)